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Francis Peyre Porcher in his Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests recorded some 600 species of botanical resources available for healing in the South (1863) symptoms of anemia purchase theophylline amex, and in 1869 he enlarged his findings keratin smoothing treatment buy theophylline 600 mg overnight delivery. Two recent botanists medicine shoppe buy theophylline 600mg mastercard, Faith Mitchell and Julia Morton symptoms 8 days post 5 day transfer purchase theophylline 600 mg with visa, drawing upon such early volumes as well as their own first- hand observations and interviews, produced books on the plant remedies still in use on the Sea Islands. Several different herbs were employed to combat one illness and many different complaints were treated with the same plant. Tannin- rich astringents, like the leaves of sweet gum, myrtle and blackberry, were invaluable in treating the all- too- common profuse diarrhea and dysentery; bitterness was prized in searching for a cure for ever- present malaria. More than a dozen plants were used to treat colds, a dozen more for fever; a half dozen were applied to sores and as many again were taken as tonics, considered especially beneficial when whiskey was added. Galax was recommended for high blood pressure; sweet gum relieved stomach pains; kidney weed was a diuretic; and swamp grass made an excellent poultice. As snakebite was common, several plants were recommended as an antidote including the leaves of American aloe and the root bark of the Angelica tree, both known to blacks as "rattlesnake master. This knowledge was a two- edged sword, for blacks could use plant poison against their masters, and some did. No plant was so popular as sassafras whose roots were used to make tea as a tonic. Whites adopted it for treating rheumatism and high blood pressure; blacks said that a tea from white sassafras roots would cure blindness. Early in American history it was exported to England for colic, venereal disease, and general pain. Horse nettle (Solanum carolinense) has long had a great reputation as an aphrodisiac; both stinging nettle (Cnidoscolus stimulosus) and ironweed (Sida rhombifolia) give a man "courage," i. Cotton root was the most widely used abortifacient among slave women, and many other parts of the plant were used as medicines. A surprising number of food plants, especially fruits, also yielded products used to treat disease. Fig, peach, pomegranate, persimmon, along with basil, okra, and pumpkin, found their way into the pharmacological lore of the Sea Islands. Relating medicinal plants of South Carolina to those of Africa is difficult, as similar but not identical species are often found, and some were used by Indians long before the arrival of blacks. Medicine and religion are so intertwined that it is hard to draw a line between plants with a sound scientific basis for their action, and those that drive out an evil spirit. Of the vast number of herbs and shrubs long tried in Africa for healing, hundreds have a proven action, and some have found their way into western medicine. By trial and error African natives learned which plants were useful for a wide range of ailments from cramps and coughs to wounds and worms. Medicine men applied emollients, purgatives, antihelmintics, diuretics, anodynes, sedatives, and narcotics; they also used a wide range of poisons for deadly arrow tips and for trial by ordeal. African willow (Salix capensis), a source of salicylic acid, is used throughout the continent to treat rheumatism. The scientific name of the tree musenna, Albizia antihelmintica, suggests its efficacy in treating tapeworms. Some plants are deliberately cultivated for their medicinal use, like sweet flag (Acorus calamus) as a topical ointment, the castor bean (Ricinus communis) as a purgative, and the chinaberry (Melia azedarach) as a vermifuge. The fig (Ficus carica) is a classic example of a plant used in Africa as both food and medicine. The fruit serves as a cathartic and a dressing for skin lesions, the leaves are used for indigestion, and the tanninrich bark relieves diarrhea and expels worms. Some well- known spices also have medicinal properties, like Kola as a tonic, Guinea cloves for dysentery, Cayenne pepper as a carminative, and Grains of Paradise as a vermifuge. Catalogues of medicinal plants of Africa, with focus on the Guinea Coast, along with their pharmacology, provide the basis of comparison with those of the Low Country. At least fourteen plants, said to have some healing properties, are in use in South Carolina and in West Africa. Although most of the items are employed to treat more than one condition, the same plant is often used in the same way on both sides of the Atlantic.

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The process effectively blocks the production of the corresponding protein medications similar to lyrica order cheap theophylline on line, causing translation arrest treatment xerostomia buy cheap theophylline 400mg online. Small oligonucleotides (about 7 to 10 nucleotides length) can act as antisense molecules symptoms your having a girl effective 600mg theophylline. Thus the genome of an organism is the totality of genes making up its hereditary constitution (Box 41 treatment esophageal cancer purchase generic theophylline on line. Genetics scrutinizes the functioning and composition of the single gene where as genomics addresses working of all genes and their inter-relationships in order to identify their combined influence on the growth and development of the organism (Box 41. Proteome is the sum of all proteins expressed by the genome of an organism, thus involving the identification of the proteins in the body and determination of their role in physiological and pathological functions. While the genome remains largely unchanged, the proteins of a particular cell change dramatically as genes are turned on and off in response to the environment (Box 41. It has been defined as the study of protein properties (expression level, post-translational modification, interactions, etc. Principle of anti-sense therapy nucleotides are delivered into the cells by liposome encapsulation. Sometimes a part of a chromosome is detached and fused with another region in the same or on another chromosome. Such chromosome translocations will also lead to formation of fusion genes and fusion proteins. Genes that may replace one another at the same locus are called allelomorphic genes or alleles. When one allele is normal, and the counterpart is defective; it is called heterozygous. Genes on the same chromosome are linked; and the linkages are more pronounced in the nearby genes. It is characterized by the phenotypic expression of the disease, even if one allele is abnormal or in heterozygous state. When an affected heterozygote (Dd) marries a normal spouse (dd), half of the progeny can have the disease. Examples of diseases with autosomal dominant inheritance are chondrodystrophy (dwarfism) and some types of porphyrias. It is estimated that more than 6% of all infants born alive suffer from genetic diseases and 1% from chromosomal aberrations. Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-84), who was Abbot of Brun, described the principles of heredity in 1866. Genetic evolution is constrained by gene function, the structure of genetic networks, and population biology. Phenotype or a particular character is controlled by a pair of alleles located on a specified area on the chromosomes. If the disease is manifested only in homozygous state (not expressed in heterozygous condition), it is known as recessive transmission. For example, in a person suffering from sickle cell anemia, both the alleles for beta globin gene have mutated. In certain cases, the carrier state may be identified biochemically, then it is referred to as the trait of the disease. For example, in sickle cell trait, one beta globin gene (allele) is normal; while the other one is abnormal (carrier state). When both father and mother are carriers, onequarter of siblings express the disease (both alleles abnormal), another one-quarter of siblings are normal, and half of the children are carriers. If only one parent is carrier and the other is normal; then there will be no affected child, but 50% children are carriers. A few examples are phenylketonuria, albinism, galactosemia and sickle cell anemia. In the autosomal conditions, the disease occurs in both sexes with equal frequency.

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Hypoglycemia May Occur during Pregnancy & in the Neonate During pregnancy treatment 7 discount theophylline online mastercard, fetal glucose consumption increases and there is a risk of maternal and possibly fetal hypoglycemia medications 1 gram purchase theophylline 600mg with amex, particularly if there are long intervals between meals or at night treatment molluscum contagiosum theophylline 600mg fast delivery. Furthermore symptoms 2 buy cheap theophylline 400 mg on-line, premature and lowbirth-weight babies are more susceptible to hypoglycemia, since they have little adipose tissue to provide free fatty acids. The enzymes of gluconeogenesis may not be completely functional at this time, and gluconeogenesis is anyway dependent on a supply of free fatty acids for energy. Little glycerol, which would normally be released from adipose tissue, is available for gluconeogenesis. Insulin resistance associated with obesity (and especially abdominal obesity) leading to the development of hyperlipidemia, then atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, as well as overt diabetes, is known as the metabolic syndrome. Impaired glucose tolerance also occurs in conditions where the liver is damaged, in some infections, and in response to some drugs, as well as in conditions that lead to hyperactivity of the pituitary or adrenal cortex because of the antagonism of the hormones secreted by these glands to the action of insulin. Blood glucose curves of a normal and a diabetic person after oral administration of 1 g of glucose/kg body weight. A criterion of normality is the return of the curve to the initial value within 2 h. Administration of insulin (as in the treatment of diabetes mellitus) lowers the blood glucose concentration and increases its utilization and storage in the liver and muscle as glycogen. An excess of insulin may cause hypoglycemia, resulting in convulsions and even in death unless glucose is administered promptly. Increased tolerance to glucose is observed in pituitary or adrenocortical insufficiency, attributable to a decrease in the antagonism to insulin by the hormones normally secreted by these glands. The pathway of gluconeogenesis in the liver and kidney utilizes those reactions in glycolysis that are reversible plus four additional reactions that circumvent the irreversible nonequilibrium reactions. Since glycolysis and gluconeogenesis share the same pathway but operate in opposite directions, their activities must be regulated reciprocally. The liver regulates the blood glucose after a meal because it contains the high-K promotes increased hepatic utilization of glucose. Glucagon is secreted as a response to hypoglycemia and activates both glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in the liver, causing release of glucose into the blood. Jitrapakdee S, Vidal-Puig A, et al: Anaplerotic roles of pyruvate carboxylase in mammalian tissues. Glucose, fructose, and galactose are the main hexoses absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, derived from dietary starch, sucrose, and lactose, respectively. Genetic deficiency of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the first enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, is a major cause of hemolysis of red blood cells, resulting in hemolytic anemia. Glucuronic acid is synthesized from glucose via the uronic acid pathway, of minor quantitative importance, but of major significance for the excretion of metabolites and foreign chemicals (xenobiotics) as glucuronides. The lack of one enzyme of the pathway (gulonolactone oxidase) in primates and some other animals explains why ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a dietary requirement for humans but not most other mammals. Deficiencies in the enzymes of fructose and galactose metabolism lead to metabolic diseases such as essential fructosuria, hereditary fructose intolerance, and galactosemia. These are rearranged to regenerate two molecules of glucose 6-phosphate and one molecule of the glycolytic intermediate, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. Since two molecules of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate can regenerate glucose 6-phosphate, the pathway can account for the complete oxidation of glucose. Flow chart of pentose phosphate pathway and its connections with the pathway of glycolysis. The full pathway, as indicated, consists of three interconnected cycles in which glucose 6-phosphate is both substrate and end-product. The reactions above the broken line are nonreversible, whereas all reactions under that line are freely reversible apart from that catalyzed by fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase. The sequence of reactions of the pathway may be divided into two phases: an oxidative nonreversible phase and a nonoxidative reversible phase. In the first phase, glucose 6-phosphate undergoes dehydrogenation and decarboxylation to yield a pentose, ribulose 5-phosphate. The hydrolysis of 6-phosphogluconolactone is accomplished by the enzyme gluconolactone hydrolase.

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When she saw the sun she repeated three times the formula: "Do Lawd Jedus medicine bow wyoming cheapest generic theophylline uk, is I please you dis day No sharp line can be drawn between religion medications nursing theophylline 400 mg with visa, magic symptoms 9 weeks pregnancy theophylline 400mg low cost, and healing medications list a-z purchase theophylline with visa, especially in Africa and the Sea Islands. The Divine Healer dispenses health, and various incantations may be used to induce the divinities to cure illness. The powerful influence of magic along the Georgia coast illustrates this principle and its African antecedents. Magic and Mystery I dohn know who done it, but all ub a sudden muh leg begin tuh swell an swell. I call a regluh doctuh, but he didn seem tuh do no good; so tree weeks ago I went tuh a root man. Their book, Drums and Shadows, filled with such examples of the practices of sea islanders of the 1930s in their own words, along with African counterparts, did for beliefs what Turner did for language. Many informants were reluctant to talk of conjuring, so strong was the fear of such magic among the descendants of African slaves. The long history and powerful influence of conjuring is illustrated by an ad in a Savannah newspaper of 1788 for a runaway slave. Serpents, feared in Dahomey and among the Ibibio and other people of southern Nigeria, frequently play a prominent role in conjuring. One Gullah woman said of another, "She wuk a root on me so strong dat she put a big snake in muh bed, and uh could feel tings moobin all tru muh body. George Little, who said he had been born with a special knowledge of healing, listed a dozen roots in his pharmacopeia. A self- professed root doctor and fortune teller, James Washington, explained that he could tell the future because he was born with a double caul. He said that some magic can guard you from harm, but evil magic can put you down sick; hair is the most powerful thing an enemy can get hold of because it is so close to the brain. The root doctor thus revealed several beliefs with well known African antecedents. The special power of those born with a caul is recognized in Dahomey; the importance of the diviner or fortune- teller is known to the Ashanti; the place of hair in magic is widespread among many Africans from the Ewe to the Mpongwe; and the role of conjure and charms is universal. Ramsay Mallette, former Professor of Psychiatry at the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston, trained his residents to perform similar magic to reverse the hex laid upon the patient whose fear of death is paralyzing. His video tape of this healing procedure, complete with the instruments of conjure that produced recovery, is a gripping demonstration of the power of belief. National Park Service D33 From birth to death, superstitions govern the life of these natives of coastal Georgia. Leaving her body during sleep, she rides another person, sometimes causing illness, and various charms must be worn to ward off this evil influence. Witches are more feared than ghosts, especially when they get a grudge against someone. At the funeral on the Georgia coast, awesome practices prevent the return of the ghost. Wen duh body wuz buried, duh drum would give signal wen all wuz tuh rise aw fall aw tuh dance aw sing. All must bid farewell to the corpse, either speaking a few words or touching it, as done on the Gold Coast. Adorning the grave is well known to the Georgia blacks, and woe to one who steals anything from it, even a broken mirror, for bad luck will follow him. Departed spirits or ghosts inhabit the world of the living, often taking the form of animals or dwarfs. The rebirth of the spirit as an animal is reported among the Yoruba, and the backward- facing dwarf is commonplace among people of the Gold Coast. In the bestiary of the sea islands are boo- hags, boo- daddies, drolls, conjure- horses, and plat- eye, a hideous and greatly feared one- eyed ghost who takes various shapes and forms when one places the head of a murdered man in a hole with treasure. An original blend of African tradition, self- reliance, and Christianity is illustrated by the defense against plat- eye of a former slave, Maum Addie. The most commonly cited ethnic group in Drums and Shadows is Ibo; a black on Sapelo, St. Simons is named for those freshly brought from Africa who, refusing to be enslaved, marched into the water and were drowned.

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