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Examine the thickness of the muscle that makes up the sides of the heart ventricles hair treatment buy trivastal 50 mg with visa. Aorta Valve Right atrium Right heart valve Right ventricle Left ventricle Left heart valve Left atrium Pulmonary artery Figure 4 532E - 34 5 treatment sciatica generic trivastal 50mg on-line. Pulmonary artery Left atrium Left heart valve Left ventricle Right ventricle Right heart valve Right atrium Artery valve Aorta 6 medicine effects order trivastal 50 mg mastercard. Answer should include any two of the following: Fetal pig medicine 257 discount trivastal 50mg with mastercard, scissors, pencil or dissecting pan 3. Left lung Lab #3 Part I: Students should have checked off all parts listed in Part I, steps 2 and 3. Found in upper respiratory; vary in length Found in mucous or hormonal glands Match the types of connective tissue with their correct description by placing the appropriate number in the blank. Connective tissue around groups or bundles of muscle fibers Connective tissue surround the individual muscle fibers Connective tissue surrounding the entire muscle Identify the types of muscular tissue described below. Functions: 532E - 42 Major organs: a. Function: Major organ: 12. Functions: Major organ: 13. Function: Major organ: 14. Epithelial tissue: Covers an internal or external surface; Body surface, body cavities linings, body ducts and passages and the secretory portion of glands b. Connective tissue: Sheets or bands of tissue composed of strands or fibrils of three proteins (collagen, elastin, reticulum) distributed in a watery matrix of ground substance; Forms a part of the skeletal system; Forms the firm attachment against which a muscle pulls (muscle connections to bone); Surrounds, collects and forms a harness to regulate and control muscle fibers, muscle fiber bundles and entire muscles during contraction and relaxation c. Muscular tissue: Most common tissue found in most animals; the cell or muscle fiber is made up of elongated strands specialized for contraction; the contractile elements of the fiber are micro fibrils d. Nervous tissue: Conducts impulses after receiving some stimulus; Neuron-The essential cell of the nervous system; Dendrites-Nerve fibers connected to the nerve cell body that conduct impulses toward the cell body; Axon-Nerve fibers connected to the nerve cell body that conduct impulses away from the cell body a. Function-Carries gases, digested food and other materials to all parts of the body Major organs: Heart; Arteries; Veins Function-Takes in food, digests food and eliminates undigested wastes Major organs: Mouth; Pharynx; Esophagus; Stomach(s); Small intestine; Large intestine (includes cecum, colon and rectum); Accessory organs (includes pancreas, liver, gall bladder) Function-Takes in air, uses certain gases from the air, expels waste gases Major organs: Lungs; Air passages Function-Eliminates wastes produced inside the cells Major organs: Kidney; Bladder Function-Collects information from inside and outside the body to help regulate body functions Major organs: Brain; Spinal cord; Nerves 8. Students should also be able to discuss animal water intake and feed additives in livestock rations. This knowledge will be demonstrated by completion of a unit test with a minimum of 85 percent accuracy. List, define and give five examples of the two major feed groups generally used in livestock feeding. Digestion-Process of breaking down and dissolving feeds so that the body can absorb them Absorption-Passing of food materials from the digestive system into the body after they are digested and dissolved Enzyme-Protein compound which brings about changes in other organic compounds without being changed or broken down itself Hormone-Internal body secretion that regulates various body processes Mastication-Grinding or chewing of food to aid in digestion Metabolism-Sum of all physical and chemical changes which take place within an organism (Note: this process includes both material and energy changes. Excretion-Removal of water and waste material from the body Regurgitation-Process by which food eaten by a ruminant is carried from the second stomach and the rumen into the gullet, and then forced up to the mouth for chewing Feces-Manure; undigested material and wastes expelled at the end of the digestive tract Pancreatic juice-Clear, watery fluid with an alkaline reaction secreted by the pancreas; aids in feed breakdown Bile-Thin, yellowish brown or greenish liquid secreted by the liver Ruminant-Animal with four stomach compartments Monogastric-Animal with one stomach compartment Rumination-Regurgitating and rechewing previously swallowed food Nutrient-Single class of foods or group of like foods that aids in the support of life; actually becomes a part of the body cells Growth stimulant-Increases growth rate and feed efficiency, but does not become a part of the body cell Antibiotic-Substance which helps prevent or control certain diseases in animals I. Cellulose-Carbohydrate portion of the cell wall; livestock cannot digest cellulose unless it is first broken down by microorganisms Thrifty-Vigorous and healthy Two major feed groups in livestock feeding (Transparencies 1,2) A. Grains-Corn, oats, barley, wheat, rye Oil meals-Soybean meal, cottonseed meal, linseed meal Molasses-Cane, beet Grain by-products-Wheat bran, wheat standard middlings Animal products-Meat scraps, tankage, fish meal, dried dairy products Roughages (Transparency 2) 1. Insulin-Diabetes treatment Cortisone-Rheumatoid arthritis treatment Thromboplastin-Coagulant (used in surgery) D. Score Match the terms associated with livestock nutrition to the correct definitions. Protein compound which brings about changes in other organic compounds without being changed or broken down itself Carbohydrate portion of the cell wall; livestock cannot digest this unless it is first broken down by microorganisms Manure; undigested material and wastes expelled at the end of the digestive tract Grinding or chewing of food to aid in digestion Thin, yellowish brown or greenish liquid secreted by the liver Sum of all physical and chemical changes which take place within an organism Process of breaking down and dissolving feeds so that the body can absorb them Process by which food eaten by a ruminant is carried from the second stomach and the rumen into the gullet and then forced up to the mouth for chewing Internal body secretion that regulates various body processes Removal of water and waste material from the body Clear, watery fluid with an alkaline reaction; aids in feed breakdown Passing of food materials from the digestive system into the body after they are digested and dissolved 1. Animal with one stomach compartment Substance which helps prevent or control certain diseases in animals Regurgitating and rechewing previously swallowed food Increases growth rate and feed efficiency, but does not become a part of the body cell Single class of foods or group of like foods that aids in the support of life; actually becomes a part of the body cells Vigorous and healthy 14. Major feed group Definition Examples b. Major feed group Definition Examples 3.

If the set of possible trees contains more than one island then heuristic methods may land on a suboptimal island medicine 93 purchase trivastal online, and the optimal island will not be discovered medications ordered po are purchase trivastal 50mg with amex. Each tree partitions the set of sequences {A treatment myasthenia gravis order line trivastal, B medicine grand rounds buy generic trivastal 50mg, C, D} into two pairs: for example Q1 corresponds to {A, B} and {C, D}. Quartet-based tree building methods follow these two steps: 1 For each quartet identify which of the three possible trees is optimal for those four sequences. Given perfect data the second step is trivial as there will be only one tree that all the subtrees will agree on. However, given homoplasy it may be that not all subtrees can be combined into one tree, in which case we want the tree that. However, fast heuristic algorithms for assembling quartets into larger trees are available. Based on the distinction we have made between tree-building methods that use distances versus those that use discrete characters, and methods that use a clustering algorithm versus those with an explicit optimality criterion, we can classify some commonly used methods. Given the range of tree-building methods available, how can we decide which ones are better than others David Penny and colleagues have suggested five desirable properties a tree-building method should have: efficiency (how fast is the method Efficiency is effectively the time in which a computer program can find a tree using a given method. Some optimality criteria can be evaluated more quickly than others; for example, the most parsimonious set of nucleotide substitutions can be calculated orders of magnitude more quickly than the likelihood of the same tree giving rise to the same data. One practical consequence of this is that in the same period of time, heuristic searches using parsimony can explore a much larger set of trees than a search using likelihood. The power of a method is a measure of how much data we need to collect before we can be reasonably sure of arriving at the correct result. A method might be theoretically very appealing, but if it requires huge numbers of sites to be sequenced then it may not be of much practical use. Another consideration is whether the method will converge on the true tree as we add more data. This desirable property is consistency; an inconsistent method would fail even if we kept feeding it more data. All tree-building methods make (implicit or explicit) assumptions about the evolutionary process. Violation of these assumptions may result in a method returning a poor estimate of phylogeny, for example a method that assumed a molecular clock when there was none may be very misleading about evolutionary relationships. The sensitivity of a method to violations of its underlying model is a measure of its robustness. Ideally, we would like to know whether these violations are sufficient to rule out a particular model, that is, the method is falsifiable. A falsifiable method that assumed a molecular clock when there was none would allow us to test the clock assumption; if that assumption was found wanting then we would abandon that method and use another that did not make the clock assumption. The ideal tree-building method would meet all five criteria, but such a method does not exist, nor is it likely to . All current methods emphasise one or more of these criteria at the expense of the remainder. This follows from the relationships between distances and trees outlined in Chapter 2: evolutionary distance is a tree metric and hence defines a tree. As an example of the latter criterion, consider the distance matrix between hominoids shown in Table 6. Tree distances larger than the observed distances are shown in bold, tree distances smaller than the observed are shown in italics. The pairwise tree distances for this tree are given in the lower left triangle of Table 6. In the example just given we were fitting an additive tree with (2n 3) branches to pairwise distances. However, measures of fit can also be applied to ultrametric trees, in which case there are (n 1) independent branch lengths to be estimated. That there are fewer parameters to be estimated for an ultrametric tree, which has one more branch than an unrooted additive tree, may seem paradoxical, but this is due to the constraint that all terminal taxa are equidistant from the root. If the distances between sequences are ultrametric then both the ultrametric and additive trees would fit those distances equally well (indeed, the additive tree would be identical to the ultrametric tree). The greater the departure from the molecular clock, the more the data will depart from being ultrametric, and the greater the difference in fit between additive and ultrametric trees, the additive tree always being a better fit as it lacks the constraints imposed by the ultrametric tree.

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Lytic infection cycle the pattern of infection displayed by a phage that replicates and lyses the host cell immediately after the initial infection medications medicaid covers order trivastal 50 mg with mastercard. Massively parallel A high throughput sequencing strategy in which many individual sequences are generated in parallel medicine for runny nose order trivastal with paypal. Mass spectrometry An analytical technique in which ions are separated according to their mass-to-charge ratios medicine chest buy 50mg trivastal with mastercard. Microsatellite A polymorphism comprising tandem copies of medications for depression buy trivastal 50 mg overnight delivery, usually, two-, three-, four- or five-nucleotide repeat units. Minimal medium A defined medium that provides only the minimum number of different nutrients needed for growth of a particular bacterium. Molecular clock An analysis based on the inferred mutation rate that enables times to be assigned to the branch points in a gene tree. Multigene family A number of identical or related genes present in the same organism, usually coding for a family of related polypeptides. Multigene shuffling A directed evolution strategy that involves taking parts of each member of a multigene family and reassembling these parts to create new gene variants. Multiregional evolution A hypothesis that holds that modern humans in the Old World are descended from Homo erectus populations that left Africa over one million years ago. Nuclear transfer A technique, used in the production of transgenic animals, that involves transfer of the nucleus of a somatic cell into an oocyte whose own nucleus has been removed. Nucleic acid hybridisation Formation of a double-stranded molecule by base pairing between complementary or homologous polynucleotides. Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis An in vitro mutagenesis technique that involves the use of a synthetic oligonucleotide to introduce the predetermined nucleotide alteration into the gene to be mutated. Orphan An open reading frame thought to be a functional gene but to which no function has yet been assigned. Out of Africa hypothesis A hypothesis that holds that modern humans evolved in Africa, moving to the rest of the Old World between 100 000 and 50 000 years ago, displacing the descendants of Homo erectus that they encountered. P element A transposon from Drosophila melanogaster used as the basis of a cloning vector for that organism. Papillomaviruses A group of mammalian viruses, derivatives of which have been used as cloning vectors. Peptide mass fingerprinting Identification of a protein by examination of the mass spectrometric properties of peptides generated by treatment with a sequence-specific protease. Phage display A technique involving cloning in M13 that is used to identify proteins that interact with one another. Phagemid A double-stranded plasmid vector that possesses an origin of replication from a filamentous phage and hence can be used to synthesize a single-stranded version of a cloned gene. Glossary 307 Pharming Genetic modification of a farm animal so that the animal synthesizes a recombinant pharmaceutical protein, often in its milk. Plaque A zone of clearing on a lawn of bacteria caused by lysis of the cells by infecting phage particles. Plasmid amplification A method involving incubation with an inhibitor of protein synthesis aimed at increasing the copy number of certain types of plasmid in a bacterial culture. Polyethylene glycol A polymeric compound used to precipitate macromolecules and molecular aggregates. Polylinker A synthetic double-stranded oligonucleotide carrying a number of restriction sites. Polymorphism Refers to a locus that is present as a number of different alleles or other variations in the population as a whole. Positional cloning A procedure that uses information on the map position of a gene to obtain a clone of that gene. Positional effect Refers to the variations in expression levels observed for genes inserted at different positions in a genome. Post-genomics Studies aimed at identifying all the genes in a genome and determining their expression patterns and functions. Principal component analysis A procedure that attempts to identify patterns in a large dataset of variable character states. Productive A virus infection cycle that is able to proceed to completion and result in synthesis and release of new virus particles.

At the end of the many branches are the twigs medicine 852 discount trivastal line, the uncountable species medicines360 cheap trivastal online master card, some 99% of which are extinct 85 medications that interact with grapefruit order trivastal in united states online. Dimetrodon Mammals evolved from synapsids (also called mammal-like reptiles treatment x time interaction 50mg trivastal sale, but are better referred to as stem-mammals, and are not reptiles). Mammal evolution was a gradual, extended process that spanned some approximately 70 million years, from about the middle Permian to the Middle Jurassic. Hadrocodium wui was a basal mammal species that lived during the early Jurassic; it was discovered in the famous Lufeng Basin in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. While Hadrocodium did not have all mammal characteristics, it did have a separate jawbone, large brain, and sophisticated hearing. Dimetrodon, meaning "two-measures tooth," was a reptile that lived in the Permian Period, living between 280 and 265 million years ago. It is believed to be more closely related to mammals than to reptiles (Sauropsida) such as dinosaurs, lizards and birds. Dimetrodon had a large sail on its back that was probably used to regulate body temperature much like the radiator in a car. The sail may have also provided camouflage when it lurked in bamboo-like Calamite plants. Most major animal groups appear for the first time in the fossil record some 545 million years ago on the geological time scale in a relatively short period of time known as the Cambrian explosion. Of great worry to Darwin, the explanation of this sudden, apparent explosion persists as a source of numerous major debates in paleobiology. While some scientists believe there was indeed an explosion of diversity (the so-called Punctuated Equilibrium theory elaborated by Nils Eldredge and the late Stephen J. Gould - Models In Paleobiology, 1972), others believe that such rapid acceleration of evolution is not possible; they posit that there was an extended period of evolutionary progression of all the animal groups, but the evidence for this was lost in the Precambrian fossil record. Modern molecular technologies (genomics, for example), through comparing nucleic acid and amino acid sequences across living species, are enabling scientists to identify genetic components and patterns conserved by evolution; from these the evolutionary branching of the Tree of Life can be inferred. The effect of the Cambrian explosion the theory of the Cambrian Explosion holds that, beginning some 545 million years ago, an explosion of diversity led to the appearance over a relatively short period of 5 million to 10 million years of a huge number of complex, multi-celled organisms. Moreover, this burst of animal forms led to most of the major animal groups we know today, that is, every extant Phylum. It is also postulated that many forms that would rightfully deserve the rank of and Phylum both appeared in the Cambrian only to rapidly disappear. With the innovation of structural support, the early Cambrian period also saw the start of an explosion in the size of many animals. Cambrian Animals the Cambrian Explosion is the outcome of changes in environmental factors leading to changes in selective pressures, in turn leading to adaptive diversification on a vast scale. By the start of the Cambrian, the large supercontinent Gondwana, comprising all land on Earth, was breaking up into smaller land masses. This increased the area of continental shelfs produced shallow seas, thereby also expanding the diversity of environmental niches in which animals could specialize and speciate. The debate persists today about whether the evolutionary "explosion" of the Cambrian was as sudden and spontaneous as it appears in the fossil record. The discovery of new pre-Cambrian and Cambrian fossils help resolve the debate, as these transitional fossil forms support the hypothesis that diversification was well underway before the Cambrian began. More recently, the sequencing of the genomes of thousands of life forms is revealing just how many and what genes and the proteins they encode have been conserved from the Precambrian. It is important to remember that geological history contains numerous periods of slow evolution punctuated by periods of rapid evolution, which Steven J. The rates of evolution generally depend on rates of selection, which in turn depend on rates of environmental change.