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Self-verification theory proposes that once people develop firmly held beliefs about themselves women's health center pembroke pines buy generic premarin from india, these self-views become important in their efforts to make sense of their world and guide behavior menstruation 6 weeks after giving birth order premarin 0.625mg on-line. Among people with positive self-views pregnancy yoga discount 0.625mg premarin with amex, the desire for self-verification works together with another important motive women's health clinic brampton buy cheap premarin 0.625mg, the desire for positive, selfenhancing evaluations. In contrast, for those with negative self-views (including those with low self-esteem and depression), their desire 482 n. It is a compact and visual way of representing meaning, but it cannot provide an exhaustive description of the meaning of any word. It only accounts for those aspects which are in systematic opposition to other words in a given set. The idea that word meanings can be represented via simpler concepts is also adopted in the natural semantic metalanguage approach developed by Anna Wierzbicka and Cliff Goddard. It proposes an inventory of 65 empirically tested indefinable human concepts, which can be used to formulate reductive paraphrases of word meanings in any language. The use of semantic primes like someone, people, thing, do, good, bad, feel, because, words, and say has enabled the meanings of semantic generalization senile plaque terms from numerous semantic domains to be described successfully. A form of generalization in classical conditioning in which a conditioned stimulus is generalized to other stimuli on the basis of meaning rather than perceptual characteristics. Thus if a person learns to react to the word red written on a card with a particular response, he/she is likely to react similarly but with diminished magnitude to a red-colored card. The two pouches about 3 inches long in human males which secrete and store most of the fluid in ejaculate and are located between the bladder and the rectum and connected to the ejaculatory duct of the prostate gland. The fluid secreted by the seminal vesicles contains proteins, enzymes, fructose, and other nutrients. The fructose provides nutrient energy for the spermatozoa as they travel through the female reproductive system to the ovaries. The capacity to recall or use general knowledge divorced from the circumstances in which it was learned. The study of signs in both verbal and nonverbal forms and the ways they communicate meaning among humans, including facial expressions, personal distance, touching, gestures, and kinesics, as well as oral and written language structures. Altering the reaction of subjects to a target stimulus by presenting a stimulus with a related meaning immediately prior to presenting the target stimulus. The correlation of two variables with the variance of one or more other variables mathematically removed from only one of the variables. In the logical tradition, semantics concerns the relationship between linguistic expressions and the phenomena in the world to which they refer and considers the conditions under which such expressions can be regarded as true or false. The linguistic or conceptual tradition, on the other hand, refers to the meaning of an expression as a structured idea or "concept" in the mind of the person using that expression. Studies in linguistic semantics demonstrate that there exists considerable cross-linguistic variation in the conceptual content of the lexicon, especially in areas such as emotions, values, speech acts, motion, and artifacts. However, it is also possible to identify a set of universal meanings (or semantic primes) which are found across all languages. Semantic studies create a window onto conceptualization and cognition and provide valuable findings for cultural and cross-cultural psychology, psycholinguistics, bilingualism, and cognitive linguistics. Any thin tissue which forms a boundary between biological structures and through which some material can pass and other material cannot pass. Typically some ions can diffuse through the barrier while other ions and larger particles cannot cross it. Thus nerve cell membranes are semipermeable, allowing different proportions of sodium and potassium ions into the cell and creating an electric potential or electrical difference across the membrane, which creates an electrical impulse when the permeability changes in a wave like motion. Senile plaques, also known as amyloid or neuritic plaques, are concentrations of amyloid protein and dead nerve cells in the brain. Of or relating to the portions of the cortex that process and integrate information from the senses with motor impulses guided by feedback. The subjective experience of the stimulation of a sensory organ by an appropriate source of energy, such as light striking the eye or a stick touching the skin. The areas of cerebral cortex immediately in front of and behind the central sulcus in each hemisphere which are central in controlling voluntary movement and processing bodily sensations. The tendency to search out exciting or thrilling experiences whose strength differs measurably among individuals in many cultures. During this period the child learns to adapt motor behavior to sensory input to accomplish his or her goals. Each of the channels through which human beings gain information about the world around them as well as about themselves, including sight, hearing, smell, taste, and several varieties of touch, including pressure, pain, temperature, and body position or kinesthesis and equilibrium.

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The ability to attend to our environment menstrual psychosis discount premarin 0.625 mg without a prescription, to our own feelings women's health center madison wi cheap 0.625mg premarin with visa, and to those of others is a naturally evolved feature of the human brain menopause forgetfulness purchase premarin with paypal. Attention is a finite commodity women's health clinic redwood city generic 0.625mg premarin mastercard, and it is absolutely essential to living a good life. We need attention to truly enjoy sensory pleasures, as well as for efficient learning. We need it in order to be truly present during sex or to be in love or when we are simply contemplating nature. Our brains can generate only a limited amount of this precious resource every day. Today, the advertisement and entertainment industries are attacking the very foundations of our capacity for experience, drawing us into the vast and confusing media jungle. They are trying to rob us of as much of our scarce resource as possible, and they are doing so in ever more persistent and intelligent ways. Of course, they are increasingly making use of the new insights into the human mind offered by cognitive and brain science to achieve their goals ("neuromarketing" is one of the ugly new buzzwords). We can see the probable result in the epidemic of attention-deficit disorder in children and young adults, in midlife burnout, in rising levels of anxiety in large parts of the population. If I am right that consciousness is the space of attentional agency, and if (as discussed in chapter 4) it is also true that the experience of controlling and sustaining your focus of attention is one of the deeper layers of phenomenal selfhood, then we are currently witnessing not only an organized attack on the space of consciousness per se but a mild form of depersonalization. New medial environments may create a new form of waking consciousness that resembles weakly subjective states-a mixture of dreaming, dementia, intoxication, and infantilization. My proposal for countering this attack on our reserves of attention is to introduce classes in meditation in our high schools. These meditation lessons should of course be free of any religious tinge-no candles, no incense, no bells. They might be a part of gym classes; the brain, too, is a part of the body-a part that can be trained and must be tended to with care. Recall that one positive aspect of the new image of Homo sapiens is its recognition of the vastness of our phenomenal-state space. Why not teach our children to make use of this vastness in a better way than their parents did-a way that guarantees and stabilizes their mental health, enriches their subjective lives, and grants them new insights For instance, the sorts of happiness associated with intense experiences of nature or with bodily exercise and physical exertion are generally regarded as positive states of consciousness, as is the more subtle inner perception of ethical coherence. If modern neuroscience tells us that access to these types of subjective experience is best acquired during certain critical periods in child development, we should systematically make use of this knowledge-both in school and at home. Likewise, if mindfulness and attention management are desiderata, we should ask what neuroscience can contribute to their implementation in the educational system. Every child has a right to be provided with a "neurophenomenological toolbox" in school; at minimum this should include two meditation techniques, one silent and one in motion; two standard techniques for deep relaxation, such as autogenic training and progressive muscle relaxation; two techniques for improving dream recall and inducing lucidity; and perhaps a course in what one might call A New Kind of Ethics 237 "media hygiene. We may well develop better meditative techniques than the Tibetan monks discussed in chapter 2. How will we conduct these discussions in open societies in the postmetaphysical age The point about consciousness ethics is not one about creating yet another academic discipline. Much more modestly, it is about creating a very first platform for the normative discussions that have now become necessary. As we slowly move into the third phase of the Consciousness Revolution, these discussions must be open to experts and laypeople alike. If, given the naturalistic turn in the image of human beings, we manage to develop a rational form of consciousness ethics, then in this very process we might generate a cultural context that could fill the vacuum created by the advances of the cognitive and neurosciences. I have my ideas about what a valuable state of consciousness could be, and you have your own. Philosophers are not holy men or priests who can claim direct insight into what is morally good. The public debates that have now become necessary must include everyone, not just scientists and philosophers. If it should fail to do so, it risks being overwhelmed by the technological consequences and the psychosocial costs of the Consciousness Revolution.

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The process of attempting to foretell the likelihood of future events on the basis of the relative frequency with which they have occurred in past observations menstruation that wont stop order generic premarin from india. A parameter used in a regression or other statistical analysis either to attempt to predict a future outcome or to create a model of relationships of variables menopause las vegas show best premarin 0.625mg. Anterior part of the frontal lobes pregnancy 30 weeks order cheap premarin, located in front of the cortical motor areas (primary motor cortex and premotor cortex) menstruation 10 days bleeding premarin 0.625mg line. From the cytoarchitectonic point of view, it is defined by the internal granular cortex; because of that, it is also referred to as the frontal granular cortex. Three major divisions are usually recognized: dorsolateral or convexital, orbitofrontal, and mesial prefrontal areas. This prefrontal cortical region has been related to complex cognition, planning behavior, controlling attention, and personality characteristics. These complex forms of cognition and behavior are referred to with the general term executive functions. Damage in the prefrontal cortex results in a diversity of impairments referred to as dysexecutive syndrome. Anatomically, the frontal lobes are the most evolved anterior areas of the brain and also late-maturating areas during ontogeny. Laterally, they are anterior to the Rolandic fissure and superior to the Sylvian fissure. In genetics, a chromosomal configuration that makes the development of a particular trait likely in normal conditions of maturation. The surgical separation of the prefrontal lobes of the brain from the rest of the brain, which results in a chronic lack of motivation and self-direction and grossly flattened affective response. This was used early in the 20th century in attempts to cure a variety of preganglionic preoperational stage problems such as chronic depression and psychosis and led to easily managed docility, although there was no evidence of its actual efficacy in treating any of the disorders for which it was used. Of or relating to efferent neurons in the sympathetic nervous system whose axons connect with a peripheral ganglion in the sympathetic nervous system. A stated idea assumed to be true from which a train of reasoning begins and which is usually necessary to reach a conclusion. Any judgment arrived at before access to the information necessary to reach such a judgment. A set of negative attitudes and beliefs about a group of people which ignores within-group diversity and is resistant to contrary evidence. The idea that if any two behaviors are both possible in a given situation and differ in their probability of occurrence, then engaging in the more probable behavior will increase the likelihood of engaging in the less likely behavior in the future. The premotor cortex is a dysgranular cortex (transition between the granular prefrontal cortex and the agranular primary motor cortex). All growth and elaboration of organic structures in a fetus that takes place from the moment of conception until birth. An emotional disorder in women characterized by cyclic periods of depressed mood, anxiety, marked affective variability, marked irritability, lethargy, sleep disturbance, decreased interest in normal activities, and a sense of being overwhelmed, whose symptoms begin the week before menstruation and disappear shortly after menstruation. In Piagetian psychology, the second stage of intellectual development from approximately 2 to 6 years of age, during which the child is egocentric and gradually develops both linguistic and mathematical symbolic thinking, including the ideas of conservation, predicate thinking, and transductive reasoning. An emotional disorder in women characterized by cyclic periods of depressed mood, anxiety, marked affective variability, marked irritability, lethargy, sleep disturbance, n. In Piagetian psychology, the second stage of intellectual development from approximately 2 to 6 or 7 years of age, during which 397 preoperational thought primary drive the child is egocentric and gradually develops both linguistic and mathematical symbolic thinking, including the ideas of conservation, predicate thinking, and transductive reasoning. Any nerve cell whose depolarization results in the release of neurotransmitters into a particular synapse. Thought characteristic of children from 2 to 6 or 7 years of age, in which the child is egocentric and gradually develops both linguistic and mathematical symbolic thinking, including the ideas of conservation, predicate thinking, and transductive reasoning. An experience of self-satisfaction that occurs when an individual positively evaluates himself/herself and believes others are similarly evaluating him or her. An inability to focus on near objects, usually caused by a loss of elasticity in the lens of the eye due to aging. Acuity for distant objects is usually unimpaired as it requires less stretching of the lens in order to focus. A general and pervasive loss of cognitive functions such as judgment, memory, and language abilities which begins before 65 years of age. In the motivational theories of Henry Murray, motivation that occurs as a result of environmental circumstances rather than internal processes of the organism or what the environment can do to and for the individual.

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However women's health clinic des moines iowa best buy premarin, the presence of major depression has been associated with older age menstrual vs ovarian cycle purchase premarin line, female gender breast cancer nutrition buy cheapest premarin and premarin, higher pretreatment cortisol levels and a more severe clinical condition (Sonino et al womens health 9 positions discount 0.625mg premarin with visa. Apathy verging on stupor may be seen and fatigue and asthenia derived from the physical disorder often colours the psychiatric picture. When they occur they are typically florid illnesses with delusions and auditory hallucinations, often with paranoid symptoms. Anxious agitation may replace the retardation in other cases, or there may be acute brief episodes of grossly disturbed behaviour. However, case reports occasionally appear in the literature and may reflect a tendency to publish unusual patients (Johnson 1975). This selective impairment in verbal compared with visuospatial learning appeared to be a result of impaired initial learning rather than retention or retrieval. There was no significant association between severity of depression and cognitive performance, suggesting that the behavioural domains of mood and cognition may be affected independently of each other in response to hypercortisolaemia. A similar pattern of cognitive impairment is also described in post-traumatic stress disorder (Bremner et al. Thus it is noteworthy in his series that depression was significantly more common in primary pituitary than primary adrenal forms of the syndrome, a difference that had already been discerned by Carroll (1976) from cases in the literature. Disturbing life events, antecedent to the development of the endocrine disorder, were confined to this form of the disease. The discovery of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors in the brain (McEwen et al. Animal studies have shown that the hippocampi are especially vulnerable to excess or deficit of glucocorticoids and exposure to exogenous corticosteroids induces changes in hippocampal pyramidal cell morphology and pyramidal cell loss (Sapolsky et al. Prolonged exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids is associated with impaired long-term potentiation (Kerr et al. It should be noted, however, that normal hippocampal volumes quoted Endocrine Diseases and Metabolic Disorders 649 in the literature show fourfold variation (Colchester et al. Furthermore, there is some evidence to suggest that this improvement in hippocampal and possibly general cerebral volume is associated with an improvement in function, particularly in learning (Starkman et al. The percentage increase in hippocampal volume significantly correlated with the magnitude of the change in urinary free cortisol levels. It is interesting to speculate that this may be the result of increased pyramidal cell dendritic branching or the production of new hippocampal neurones, a consequence of granule cell neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus resulting from reduced cortisol suppression. In this regard it should be noted that corticosteroids are frequently used and often effective in reducing cerebral oedema associated with intracranial tumours. This was thought to have been precipitated partly by the mounting anxiety surrounding her admission to hospital. She became markedly paranoid and agitated, developed confusional episodes and showed bizarre catatonic motor phenomena. The entire condition responded well to bilateral extirpation of the hyperplastic adrenal glands and her mental state returned to normal within a few days of the operation. A soldier of 23 with a good service record became abruptly confused and hallucinated, and showed severely disturbed behaviour with grandiose and religious delusions. He was diagnosed as schizophrenic and treated extensively with electroconvulsive therapy. He continued to be severely disturbed, but pituitary irradiation 18 months and 2 years after onset led to transitory amelioration of the psychotic symptoms. Two and a half years after onset bilateral adrenalectomy was performed, and thereafter there was steady and gradual improvement until full premorbid stability was regained (Hertz et al. In developed countries the most common cause is autoimmune destruction of the adrenal glands. Autoantibodies seen in the disorder appear to be directed against the 21-hydroxylase enzyme, involved in steroidogenesis, and other endogenous adrenal cell antigens (Winqvist 1992). The physical and mental symptoms usually improve in parallel until the patient regains his former stability.

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The more that these criteria are not fulfilled breast cancer socks order premarin canada, the more will an epileptic basis for the act be regarded with suspicion menstrual questions order 0.625mg premarin with visa. It usually represents a confused defensive reaction to attempts by others to restrain or assist the patient menstrual nosebleeds buy premarin 0.625 mg mastercard, actions that the patient appears to misconstrue as threatening women's health clinic lake haven premarin 0.625mg visa. More prolonged aggressive episodes appearing after a period of recovery from seizures are sometimes associated with postictal psychosis. As detailed above, careful studies of people with epilepsy who have committed crimes have identified very few cases in which criminal acts have occurred during a seizure. The majority of criminal behaviour in people with epilepsy is therefore interictal and has little to do with the occurrence of seizures per se (Marsh & Krauss 2000). Furthermore, such criminal behaviour is no more likely to be violent than crime committed by people without epilepsy. Sociodemographic factors associated with offending behaviour in the general population, including various indices of social deprivation, are over-represented in people with epilepsy and undoubtedly underlie much of the association between epilepsy and criminal behaviour (Treiman 1986). Among medical variables, by far the most important factors are the presence of underlying brain damage and cognitive impairment (Stevens & Hermann 1981). Interictal psychopathology, particularly psychosis, may also be significant (Mendez et al. It can be important in medicolegal work to have guidelines for assessing the probability that a crime may have been committed during an episode of ictal or postictal confusion. In legal terms, an automatism occurs if an act is committed but was neither intended nor the result of recklessness. Prior to the 1991 Criminal Procedure Act, the defence of insane automatism attracted mandatory detention under Sections 37 and 41 of the Mental Cognitive function in epilepsy Although most people with epilepsy function within the normal range of cognitive ability, comparisons with appropriate control groups consistently demonstrate deficits (Motamedi & Meador 2003; Elger et al. There is now good evidence that such cognitive deficits are present at the time epilepsy is first diagnosed and may even precede the onset of seizures. This is hardly surprising when seizures are symptomatic of gross underlying brain disease. However, evidence of early cognitive deficits has also emerged from studies of patients with idiopathic and cryptogenic epilepsy. Neuropsychological testing, conducted on average 10 months after the onset of seizures, demonstrated a broad range of mild cognitive impairments that were present in both epilepsy syndromes. Of the children with epilepsy, 26% had a history of academic problems (compared with 4% of controls) and in the majority of cases these were identified by educational services before the first recognised seizure. Cognitive profiles and epilepsy syndrome the pattern of cognitive impairment in chronic epilepsy varies according to the underlying epilepsy syndrome. The lateralisation of language dominance has a strong influence on these material-specific memory deficits. However, in patients with right or mixed hemisphere language dominance these associations were not seen. Hemispheric language dominance was determined by testing after intracarotid amobarbital in this study. The authors comment that failure to specify hemispheric language dominance, or using less stringent definitions of language dominance, might account for some of the many inconsistent findings in the literature. Whether frontal lobe seizures have a specific effect on cognition, independent of underlying pathology, has therefore not been established. Where deficits are found, the profile is what might be expected in association with frontal lobe damage, with impairments in psychomotor speed, attention, working memory, responseinhibition and planning, set against a background of variable general impairment (Helmstaedter et al. The conventional view that the idiopathic epilepsy syndromes are benign in terms of cognitive outcome has recently been challenged (Wirrell et al. Studies of children and adults with idiopathic generalised epilepsy have demonstrated mild cognitive deficits that are present early in the natural history of the disorder (Pulliainen et al. Whether abnormalities persist after seizures have resolved in the benign idiopathic syndromes has not been established. In view of the overlap between idiopathic generalised epilepsy syndromes it seems possible that similar deficits occur in other syndromes but this has not been systematically explored. Among idiopathic localisation-related syndromes, cognitive deficits have been demonstrated in benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (Weglage et al.